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This article interprets the perception and aspirations of the city community, as a cornerstone of drafting the design criteria of a community-based city park landscape, which is effective and sustainable. Flooding and drought problems in Jakarta and surrounding areas should be resolved in a comprehensive, integrated and sustainable manner. Referring to the Water Sensitive Urban Design WSUD which is an innovation in integrated water management, it is recommended to develop the function of detention and retention ponds as part of storm drainage system, replacing conventional system. Jalan Kyai Tapa No. Author Guideline 2.
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The fast urban development leads to many complex problems. A smart city aims to solve these problems using scientific approaches. It needs to be upgraded simultaneously with the concept of the smart city. Methods of smart UGS planning and sustainable landscape design help integrate ecological performance and other functions of UGS.
Smart UGS planning is a technical management tool and a human-centered smart application. A novel UGS classification method based on function combinations is proposed in the present work.Eventually, the UGSs researched in this work are optimized based on public preferences and the current conditions of the sites. Results demonstrate the following. The results could provide methodological references for planning different types of UGS and innovative insights for smart UGS planning and sustainable landscape design.
Accelerated urbanization has produced many tricky problems. A smart city aims to solve these problems using intelligent approaches, achieving sustainable development [ 1 ]. At present, smart city construction has covered multiple fields, such as architecture, transportation, home furnishing, ecology, and public services [ 2 ]. Statistics revealed that as of the end of , smart city construction in China was concentrated in several outstanding digital economies, smart city operators, and service providers, such as Baidu, Alibaba, and Tencent.
Other areas should also develop simultaneously. Smart city construction has become an inevitable urban development trend in the world today, promoting the sustainable development of cities. Amidst the information technology innovations, how can UGS adapt to the demands for sustainable development in smart city construction?
How to help cities enter the high-quality development stage through smart construction [ 3 , 4 ]? Under the sustainable development strategy, the premise of UGS planning and design is to coordinate the relationships among population, economy, resources, and the environment so that public space planning can be in a virtuous circle. Besides a helpful tool to plan urban lands and spaces, the UGS planning system is also a platform for practicing ecological civilization [ 5 ].
To manage and use urban data, Lv et al. This platform could provide a series of e-government services, including environmental protection, green space planning, and urban resource monitoring and evaluation.
Smart city landscape construction occupies nearly one-third of urban land [ 7 ], exerting a significant impact on sustainable urban development. UGSs, such as parks, squares, and affiliated green spaces, reflect the level of urban development to varying degrees. In the meantime, ecological greening is also an excellent approach to improve urban ecology [ 8 , 9 ]. Anguluri and Narayanan designed a green index suitable for the local urban environment.
They incorporated this index into smart city planning. The final result confirmed the importance of UGS planning in urban planning [ 10 ]. While the public gradually realizes the importance of ecological civilization, the initial environmental demand has been upgraded to the urban environmental demand coordinated with society, economy, and ecological environment. This demand matches the essential pursuit of the smart city. At present, explorations about green space planning and sustainable landscape design in smart cities are still at the preliminary stage.
The unified conclusion and methodology have not yet been formed. Green space planning shall adapt to the development of different countries and cities. This proposal reveals the impact of urban construction on livability and the pursuit of sustainable development. Research on smart UGS includes three aspects: the intelligentization of UGS spatial layout, the intelligentization of human-land relationships, and the intelligentization of green space facilities.
Building a smart city system that sticks to the sustainable development strategy with open and self-adaptive technologies can meet the demands of the ecological chain in smart city construction. This solution consists of a network, a cloud platform, and a center.
The perception layer, edge layer, network layer, platform layer, and application layer are connected to establish a neural network that integrates and interconnects multisource heterogeneous networks, on-demand distribution, and local edge intelligence [ 11 ].
Figure 1 shows the global architecture of the smart city. Apparently, information infrastructure is the foundation of smart city development. Only by integrating and collecting information infrastructure data can a convenient, efficient, flexible, and innovative operation and service model be provided for urban public management and services.
The collaborative application of multiple approaches and technologies in the ecological strategy-oriented UGS planning reveals that ecological environment improvement planning is gradually developing and improving at the level of urban spatial planning [ 13 , 14 ].
Based on the intelligent urban system, the intelligent implantation of the UGS system planning can significantly improve the intellectual level of regional management, support the scientific, efficient, intelligent, and refined green space management, enhance the intellectual ability of regional services, and provide convenient, practical, intelligent, and accurate green space services.
The UGS system planning is often based on the urban site elements and urban style, which requires big data storage. The smart city system can integrate big data. According to the big data statistics, the urban form can be macroscopically divided into the core type, the star type, the satellite type, and the linear type, as shown in Figure 2. A reasonable urban structure is of great value to the layout and ecological effects of the urban ecological network. The green areas of core-type cities usually exist in the form of dots or belts, mostly green ecological patches in the artificially constructed environment.
Cities of the star type often have more than two intersecting development axes, around which urban activities are concentrated.
Besides urban built-up areas, green spaces are also distributed on different radiation lines [ 17 ]. Satellite cities are centered on and distributed around large cities. UGS is distributed between satellite cities and central cities in the form of large green spaces.
Cities of the linear type develop along transportation corridors, whose UGSs are distributed around these corridors as well. Besides, the urban form and ecological green space present the corresponding relationship in the layout.
A mosaic relationship is formed between the green space and the city. The urban ecological environment space can determine the development of the urban form. The green space landscape can serve as an example; patches in the landscape are point-shaped factors, such as green spaces in parks, green spaces at squares, and the building space system [ 18 — 20 ].
The ecological corridor is a linear element of the landscape, which is an ecological network system composed of crisscross corridors and ecological patches. Corridors can make the basic spatial pattern of the ecosystem integral and, simultaneously, have ecological service functions, such as protecting biodiversity and preventing soil erosion. The matrix is the surface element of landscape, the background ecosystem or land-use form in the patch mosaic, and the landscape element with the largest area and the best connectivity.
Big data applications are vital in smart UGS system planning. However, in fact, cities keep developing regardless of smart digital technology. Smart UGS planning should be not only a technical management tool but also human-centered smart applications. Traditional urban space planning is based on successful industrial city transformation and renewal, which is different from urban space planning under the guidance of ecological strategy.
From the urban spatial planning perspective, the pursuit of the environment has formed corresponding ecological strategies at both the macrolevel and microlevel. Landscape construction is the core to construct national ecological civilization and urban ecological civilization.
The innovation of science and technology has brought more opportunities to the sustainable design of the landscape. New methods and techniques make the landscape design more intelligent.
The sustainable landscape design aims to achieve the virtuous cycle of the landscape and shall coordinate the development of the site and people. The existing sustainable landscape designs include sustainable landscape patterns, sustainable landscape materials, sustainable landscape use, and sustainable management techniques. The landscape pattern should be rationally arranged in accordance with the characteristics of the surrounding environment to maximize the function, considering the sustainable principle of smart green space.
For example, the continuity and aesthetics of the green belt on the street shall be considered. The industrial landscape emphasizes the functions of enclosing the landscape, purifying the air, and isolating noise. The landscape design of parks and plazas must meet the demands of the public while fully embodying aesthetics and urban characteristics.
Landscape materials include soft landscape and hard landscape. Soft landscape refers to plant landscape; the sustainable plant landscape design can apply the native plants and configure natural wild plants [ 21 ]. Hard landscape refers to the application of ecological materials. Ecological materials refer to materials with excellent environmental coordination and good performance such as local materials, ecological permeable bricks, ecological concrete, and water filtration systems.Adequate irrigation equipment shall be equipped on the road to improve or replace the soil that is not suitable for plant growth together with the urban drainage system [ 22 ].
Various plants in the park can provide diversified habitats for animals and help increase the capacity of green carbon sinks. Compatible ecological service functions can meet perceived needs and provide life support features [ 23 ]. In the meantime, rational use of natural elements, such as light, wind, and water, reduces resources and energy consumption [ 24 , 25 ]. Integrating the Internet of Things IoT technology with modern ecological parks to establish a large-scale smart park database can intelligently connect people and nature, achieving mutual induction, mutual understanding, and mutual interaction between humans and nature [ 26 ].
Figure 3 displays the basic structure of the smart park management platform. The open park information management based on the geographic information system GIS can comprehensively manage the information of urban gardens. By setting up hierarchical permissions, it provides a complete management platform for UGS planning and management, green space status and historical data, plant species, and diversity protection.
GIS has powerful analysis functions and is gradually being applied to research cities. Using GIS, designers can better optimize the functional positioning of urban areas [ 27 ]. Lv et al. In this scheme, BIM was connected to the integrated spatial and semantic information at all stages of urban architecture.
A revolutionary transformation of urban information management was achieved in the entire life cycle [ 28 ]. On the operating system of Windows, combining GIS and computer achieved automatic landscaping management.
This system is supported by GIS and intelligent decision-making of greening tree species. Functions such as query, editing, and analysis can be realized; on this basis, graphics can be output.In this way, the digital information system solves not only data processing but also the dynamic management of the connection between the system and the reality and the coordinated output and input.
It provides technical aspects for the large scope of urban management and the difficulty of implementing supervision. Smart parks depend on the sensor nodes and wired and wireless communication networks deployed in urban gardens, realizing intelligent perception, irrigation, early warning, analysis, and other garden management works. Finally, fine cultivation, visual management, and intelligent decision-making can be balanced.
The development of a smart city emphasizes the quality of the environment. As a key component of urban infrastructure, UGS is a critical factor in evaluating urban quality.
For our team, design is a way of life — a professional philosophy, a creative rallying, and a shared purpose in support of excellence. Our global experience pays tribute to the passionate creation of distinctive, innovative, and inspiring environments. Working in conjunction with nature to achieve impressive results with enduring appeal, we design outdoor spaces that are timeless, never forced — and establish relationships that strengthen these concepts for future projects and generations. With an eye toward holistic development, land preservation, and aesthetic cognizance, our designers improve the relationship between people and place.
topos magazine is the leading international and interdisciplinary review for landscape architecture, urban design and urban development.
Urban Landscape Planning City is the place where we live. After having a stable life, people begin to pursue a comfortable and wonderful life. In cities, comfortable and wonderful public landscapes are an integral part of city life.They not only add beauty to city, but also maintain harmony between human and environment. This book contains newest representative works of numerous excellent designers across the world, including parks, streets, squares, commercial space, educational space, cultural space and other categories. It shows you the most unique landscape designs from design concept to detailed description, from overall landscapes to partial features. While showing public landscapes themselves, this book also expounds profound concept of sustainable development and harmonious co-existence between human and nature.
Cannon Ivers is the author of a new book exploring the activation and curation of public spaces. Here, he explains why these need to be priorities for designers and planners. In , something memorable happened in central London. For two days, Trafalgar Square was covered with a 2,sqft lawn. Overnight this formal, rather prescriptive civic space was transformed into a popular village green, a place for picnics and play.
Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. The scope of the profession is broad and can be subdivided into several sub-categories including professional or licensed landscape architects who are regulated by governmental agencies and possess the expertise to design a wide range of structures and landforms for human use; landscape design which is not a licensed profession; site planning ; stormwater management ; erosion control; environmental restoration ; parks , recreation and urban planning ; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate and residence landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of design, planning and management.
The orchards in Caldes have always been irrigated with water from the Roman thermal springs located there. Due to a construction boom and consequent discharge of waste water at the end of the 20th century, however, the irrigation system fell into decline and cultivation of the orchards was discontinued. A restoration of the irrigation system linked to a redevelopment of the infrastructure system via a variety of bridges and walkways lead to the complete renovation of the canal system within a period of two and a half years. With the help of fruit growers and architects, a basin for the purification of polluted water was built and previously private parcels of land were made publicly accessible through the construction of a bridge over the main canal. In addition to the two prizes the jury also awarded four special mentions. A special recognition was awarded to the city of Copenhagen in acknowledgment of its public policies for improving the quality of life in public open space.
We are committed to work that deepens the connection of people to the land and each other. A safe and beautiful public realm improves the health and resilience of our communities. All of our work is inspired by this. We pride ourselves on being great designers and masterful technicians. Our approach emphasizes the thoughtful use of materials and sustainable systems. We enjoy a diverse range of projects, from educational campuses to civic facilities, transportation to ecological restoration. Our expertise in planning, permitting, design and construction observation, public outreach, and facilitation adds value to each project.
Institute of Landscape Architecture, Urban Planning and Garden Art, Integrated renewal of the buildings and the related public spaces is therefore an.
Building elements.Finding new spaces in towns and cities that can be turned into communal parks is extremely difficult with every available plot in such high demand and so, as with many other aspects of urban development, the reuse or re-appropriation of existing land has become a popular alternative. Designs were recently unveiled for the third and final section of the High Line, which will wrap around the Hudson Yards, an active train yard for Long Island Rail Road. The proposal for Section 3 has been carefully coordinated with an ongoing development of the Hudson Yards, which will ultimately host more than 12 million square feet of offices, residential, retail and cultural venues.
Designer Thomas Heatherwick 's studio has proposed retaining and rewilding the frame of a partly demolished shopping centre to form a new mixed-use development and public leisure space in Nottingham. Researchers from ETH Zurich are building a tall architectural structure that will evoke the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, in a project that involves working collaboratively with robots. A disused power plant and its neglected surroundings in Shenzhen , China, have been transformed into a wetland park masterplanned by Hong Kong-based landscape studio eLandscript. Architect Yasmeen Lari and Heritage Foundation of Pakistan have worked with disadvantaged communities to craft terracotta tiling for a pedestrianised street in the historic heart of Karachi. ECG International Landscape Consultants has transformed the site of a derelict sugar factory in Pingtung City, Taiwan , into a public park that retains fragments of the existing industrial infrastructure.
Currently, the earth is undergoing an environmental crisis, affecting the wellbeing and livelihood of millions of ubiquitously.Amidst mindless concretisation of the world post-industrialization, a disconnection between nature and the city began which continues till today.
We have placed these two categories together because, in some clients' and planners' minds, landscape design equates to 'landscaping' and is therefore concerned with soft elements, such as earthworks and planting; and urban design is concerned with hard interventions in an urban context. To landscape architects such as 2B, there is no such distinction: the manipulation of topography and earthworks, the use of hard materials such as paving, boundaries and lighting, combined with soft landscape features such as trees, plants and water; these elements combine to create the palette of the landscape architect. True urban design is a fusion of existing or new built form and external space which creates excellent places to live, work and play. Visionary developers and planners know that Landscape and Urban design are not just an aesthetic 'bolt-on' to built development: they are critical factors in creating liveable spaces for functioning communities ; they provide context and setting to development and determine the first experience and the long-term use of the critical space around our towns, work places and homes. Planners, politicians and society are increasingly recognising that sense of community and social cohesion do not take place in the living room, or the back garden, but in the outdoor public spaces which are the meeting rooms of our society. All the more important then, that they should be well designed, not as an afterthought, but as an integral and vital part of any development or regeneration project.
Urban landscaping is so much more than an effort to beautify city streets — it's essential to a city's operation.Urban landscape design refers to the planning, designing, and implementation of a city's greenways, plants, and other landscaping elements. Well-executed urban landscape design takes into consideration visual appeal, connections to the local community, the natural ecosystem, existing infrastructure, and the everyday lives of those who live and work in the city to create the most impactful site-specific layout.